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Geography and attitudes

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A mixed-method approach for converting free brand associations to a brand equity index [PDF]
Kaleel Rahman and Charles S. Areni pp. 1–30
Researchers suggest quantification of qualitative data as an innovative approach to knowledge creation. Brand associations, a form of qualitative data, are common in measuring customer-based brand equity. The branding literature suggests that not all brand associations are equal. The strength, uniqueness and valence of brand associations need to be considered when assessing brand associations (Keller 1993). Although Keller's work is cited by many, no study has devised a method to quantify and integrate these three dimensions into a single index. This study provides an approach to address all three dimensions simultaneously. The approach first determines uniqueness of brand associations by coding associations into several mutually exclusive meaning categories. Then the serial order of free-association elicitation is used to assess association strength. The serial order, combined with a measure of valence, creates a quantification of open-ended brand associations called a 'weighted valence index' (WVI). In conclusion, the paper discusses the reliability and validity of the proposed measure.
[Digital First] Published 1 September 2015

Opinion bandwagons in attitudes towards the Common Market [PDF]
Catherine Marsh and John O'Brien pp. 295–305
Opinion bandwagons have been inadequately conceptualised in most past research. In this paper, an experiment is reported in which people are given information about the trend of public opinion with respect to the EEC. A significant and consistent effect is then observed on their own stated views on the topic. These results are interpreted and discussed.
[Digital First] Published 6 August 2015

Assessing the response format effects on the scaling of marketing stimuli [PDF]
Ling Peng and Adam Finn
Multi-item rating scales are the accepted solution for achieving reliable and valid measures in the social sciences. Issues not fully resolved include the optimal number of response categories, choice of semantic rating versus Likert form, and the appropriateness of mixing positively and negatively expressed items. While there is considerable empirical research on these issues, it addresses the scaling of respondents and is yet to produce consensus as to the most appropriate practice. In marketing, multi-item scales are not only used to scale consumer respondents, they are used to scale marketing stimuli. This article examines these response format issues when the primary objective is to scale marketing stimuli rather than consumers using generalisability theory criteria for data quality. G-study website assessment data using different response formats are used to compare their effects on the observed variance components and G-coefficients for websites. Conclusions are drawn for the most appropriate response format to use in marketing studies that scale marketing stimuli.
[Digital First] Published 1 August 2015

Book review: Measuring Service Performance: Practical Research for Better Quality, by Ralf Lisch [PDF]
Phyllis Macfarlane Vol. 57 No. 4, 2015 pp. 653–655
This book review examines 'Measuring Service Performance: Practical Research for Better Quality', a book that is not for those looking for easy answers but for those who are seriously interested in improving service quality. The author is a strong advocate of qualitative research through the examination of case studies and recommends detailed content analysis of, for example, customer complaint.
Published 28 July 2015

Relating brand equity and customer equity: An exploratory study [PDF]
Jaime Romero and Maria Jesús Yagüe Vol. 57 No. 4, 2015 pp. 631–651
Brand equity and customer equity, respectively, constitute the value provided by brand and customer portfolios to companies. These are metrics of marketing performance in the long term, as well as key factors in firm valuation processes. However, their relation has not been empirically analysed to date. This study explores the connection between brand equity and customer equity. We employ a simultaneous equations model in which brand equity and customer equity depend on each other and also on marketing expenditures. We find that these metrics partially overlap, particularly in some industries. Hence, our results highlight the importance of implementing models that consider the interaction between them in order to obtain reliable measurements of the overall productivity of marketing actions. Additionally, our results suggest that the value of brands and customer portfolios should be jointly measured so as to obtain trustworthy assessments of firm value.
Published 28 July 2015

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The IJMR is published for MRS by Warc, the global provider of ideas and evidence for marketing people.