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Current Issue

Vol. 58 No. 5, 2016

Peter Mouncey pp. 641–646 [Download PDF]
In this editorial, Peter Mouncey previews the articles in the September 2016 issue of IJMR, covering topics including luxury brands in China, product placement strategies and measuring brand preferences in the US. A paper from Italy investigates the predictive power of Katona's Index of Consumer Sentiment in recent economic recession to forecast consumption, in order to illustrate its relevance to market research. A US-based paper addresses the challenge posed in research surveys that require participants to rate their preferences where they are faced with a long list of potential product attributes.
Published 26 September 2016

Binary choice vs ratings scales: a behavioural science perspective
Chris Harvey pp. 647–648 [Download PDF]
This paper argues for the adoption of binary choice over ratings scales, from the knowledge that the majority of human decision making takes place in what Kahneman (2011) and others have described as 'system 1'. Negative issues associated with the use of ratings scales in surveys have been widely reported (e.g. Revilla 2015), with the binary choice response option having been proposed as a better method due to its elimination of a number of biases. Given that we regularly classify concepts, objects, organisations or other people in binary format using system 1, the binary choice response option would seem to provide a method not only less biased than ratings scales but, critically, more realistic.
Published 26 September 2016

How to mix brand placements in television programmes to maximise effectiveness
Nathalie Dens, Patrick De Pelsmacker, Peter Goos and Leonids Aleksandrovs pp. 649–670 [Download PDF]
This research, based on 20 brand placement campaigns for 17 brands in 11 Belgian entertainment shows, uses the mixture modelling technique to identify the optimal mix of brand placement types in a programme. It determines the ideal proportions of prop placements (branded products that are put on display during the programme, without active interaction between the product and a person), interactive placements (placements that entail interaction between a branded product and a person), and look-and-feel placements (branding elements that are visually incorporated in the scenery of the programme) to maximise brand attitude and brand recall. Controlling for programme connectedness, brand attitude is maximised when all brand placements in a programme are interactive. The optimal mix for brand recall is more diverse, and changes for consumers with different viewing frequencies. For light viewers, 39% interactive and 61% prop placements should be used. For consumers with high viewing frequency, a relatively larger proportion should be allocated to interactive placements (44%).
Published 4 May 2016

Consumer sentiment after the global financial crisis
Edoardo Lozza, Andrea Bonanomi, Cinzia Castiglioni and Claudio A. Bosio pp. 671–692 [Download PDF]
The present study seeks to analyse the predictive capacity of the Index of Consumer Sentiment (ICS) (a leading index in international market research) in Italy, before and after the global financial crisis. The analysis focuses on the period 2005–2013 and investigates the predictive power of the ICS with regard to two different outcomes: (1) the actual level of household consumption (considering both its absolute value as total spending and its quarterly variations) and (2) consumers' strategies (i.e. reducing their consumption, focusing on discounts and promotions, focusing on quality), both in general and in specific sectors (e.g. food, leisure, health). The study is based on a second-level analysis of data collected by the Italian Statistical Institute (ISTAT) and a tracking survey on Italian consumers' perceptions and strategic intentions (four waves per year, each consisting of 1,000 telephone interviews based on a structured questionnaire). The findings show that the ICS is predictive of quarterly variations in household consumption, and not of its absolute values; that the index is more predictive in the following trimester, while less predictive synchronously (i.e. in the same quarter); and that its predictive power was stronger between 2009 and 2013 compared to previous years. Furthermore, after 2008, the ICS was also predictive of consumer strategies, particularly those aimed at reducing expenses and focusing on quality (while no relation seems to exist between consumer sentiment and consumers' strategies aimed at discounts and promotions). Implications for marketing and market research are discussed.
Published 1 December 2015

A respondent-friendly method of ranking long lists
James Heyman and John Sailors pp. 693–710 [Download PDF]
This article illustrates a respondent-friendly approach to preference elicitation over large choice sets, which overcomes limitations of rating, full-list ranking, conjoint and choice-based approaches. This approach, HLm, requires respondents to identify the top and bottom m items from an overall list. Across respondents, the number of times an item appears in participants’ L (low) list is subtracted from the number of times it appears in participants' H (high) list. These net scores are then used to order the total list. We illustrate the approach in three experiments, demonstrating that it compares favourably to familiar methods, while being much less demanding on survey participants. Experiment 1 had participants alphabetise words, suggesting the HLm method is easier than full ranking but less accurate if m does not increase with increases in list length. The objective of experiment 2 was to order US states by population. In this domain, where knowledge was imperfect, HLm outperformed full ranking. Experiment 3 involved eliciting respondents’ personal tastes for fruit. HLm resulted in a final ranking that correlated highly with MaxDiff scaling. We argue that HLm is a viable method for obtaining aggregate order of preferences across large numbers of alternatives.
Published 4 January 2016

Exploring Luxury Value Perceptions in China: Direct and indirect effects
Gong Sun, Steven D'Alessandro and Lester W. Johnson pp. 711–732 [Download PDF]
Taking the case of China, this paper examines the relationship between different luxury value dimensions, and explores how these affect consumers’ purchase intentions. China is now the second largest luxury market in the world. Most previous studies of luxury consumption have tested only the direct influences of luxury value perceptions on purchasing behaviour. For this paper, sample data were gathered through surveys administered to 409 Chinese nationals living in China. The model is empirically tested using structural equation modelling. The current research incorporates both personal- and social-oriented perceived values, and draws a holistic picture of consumers’ decision-making processes in luxury consumption. The results suggest that perceived social value and perceived emotional value both directly influence luxury purchase intention. Perceived unique value exerts an indirect impact on luxury purchase intention. Perceived quality value has both a direct and indirect effect on luxury purchase intention. We also account for cultural differences rather than simply replicating previous studies in China. We consider local culture in order to understand what consumers actually value from luxury products, and we discuss the implications of indigenisation for future international marketing research.
Published 1 April 2016

Exploring the past behaviour of new brand buyers
Arry Tanusondjaja, Giang Trinh and Jenni Romaniuk pp. 733–748 [Download PDF]
This research examines the retrospective buying behaviour of customers acquired by a new brand, both at category and brand level. New brand launches are risky endeavours for marketers, as many fail to attract a sustainable customer base. We examine new brand launches in six packaged goods categories in the UK, across a wide range of brand and category conditions, including premium brands and private labels. The results show that, in the pre-launch period, buyers of a new brand are more likely to have been heavier (more frequent) category buyers and, where applicable, heavier buyers of a parent brand. However, despite disproportionately drawing from heavy category buyers, the buyers of new launches tend to become only light brand buyers. This suggests that new brands are more likely to 'slip' into the repertoire of heavy category or parent brand buyers. This research contributes to our understanding of repertoire formation in packaged goods categories. It also has implications for the pre-testing of new launches and the scheduling of marketing activities.
Published 26 September 2016

Insight Intelligence Market Research Summit 2016, 9-10 May, London
Ian Bramley and Emma Bramwell pp. 749–753 [Download PDF]
This article covers a new approach to measuring rail passengers' experience by exploring the emotions associated with rail travel among London commuters. A multi-stage design involved creating and validating a new non-verbal emotional scale, and capturing these emotions in the moment via an in-app survey. The results show that, in a transport research landscape filled with standardised scales for measuring recalled experience, there is a place for monitoring the in-the-moment emotional experience of passengers.
Published 26 September 2016

Insight Intelligence Market Research Summit 2016, 9-10 May, London
Jillian Ney pp. 754–760 [Download PDF]
This article considers social media intelligence in market research, including the tools needed to analyse conversations and the challenge of how to extract value from the millions of online conversations that happen daily. Social media can be seen as the largest focus group in the world, however, unlike other forms of online research, the challenge is to extract value from the millions of online conversations that happen daily without asking any direct questions and without anyone knowing you are there. To get the scale required to analyse social media conversations, we rely on social analysis tools, from analytics to audience interest mapping to social listening. These tools require a skilled end user to analyse and interpret the data to turn the conversations into insight. As an industry, market research must overcome the barriers associated with social media intelligence.
Published 26 September 2016

Book Review: Creating value with Big Data analytics: making smarter marketing decisions, by Peter C. Verhoef, Edwin Kooge and Natasha Walk
Peter Mouncey pp. 761–764 [Download PDF]
This book review examines 'Creating value with Big Data analytics: making smarter marketing decisions', by Peter C. Verhoef, Edwin Kooge and Natasha Walk. The book covers more than just the analytic techniques that might be applied in the world of Big Data. At the heart of it is also a useful framework for operationalising Big Data within the company. It can provide market researchers with a perspective on the skills and techniques necessary to extend their role in developing insight from a wider range of data sources.
Published 26 September 2016

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Mindframes: 6 enduring principles from 50 years of market research

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